Saturday, September 14, 2019

Genetically modified foods: 6 thinking hats Essay

1. Genetically modified foods or GM foods is to refer to crop plants created for human or animal consumption/ intake. GM foods are foods produced from organisms inserted into their DNA altering, and allowing genetic changes to be made, affecting their natural balance to give the desired affect –enhancing desired traits an e. g. being to increase the resistance to herbicides or to increase or improve nutritional content-. With the use of modern technology it is also possible to allow selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism to another, it also works between non- related species. Modern biotechnology† or â€Å"gene technology†, sometimes also â€Å"recombinant DNA technology† or â€Å"genetic engineering† allows all this to happen an e. g. of being the growth and harvest of crop plants. 2. GM foods are everywhere in shops, supermarkets etc. In Australia, currently only two GM foods are produced with it being canola and cotton, but many GM foods such as soybeans, corn, rice, peas, sugarbeet, rice, sugarcane and dairy productsare imported from different countries all around the world. The label for the products are on the label at the back of it, showing all the ingredients including the GM substance an example being shown below but not all foods have the GM food labelling on them. 3. GM foods such as food made at bakeries, restaurants and takeaways, potatoes and tomatoes have no GM labelling on it, this due to the fact that if labelled it is to imply a warning about health effects causing the consumers to not want to buy the product and with some arguments of consumers deserving to know what’s in their foods the process is not as easy as it sounds having it to require many of several complex technical issues –the cost of paper and ink to print the label, having to go through a long process of having the approval from authorities and such- . Another reason is that The GM foods are not that significant and won’t really affect the person’s health so it is seen that it is not needed to label them for there would be a very large decrease of income if it were labelled. Nancy Ho 91 1 Genetically modified corn NEXT TO A NORMAL ONE ->

Friday, September 13, 2019

Foundations of Business Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Foundations of Business - Research Paper Example Violation of insider trading also comprise of ‘tipping’ such information and misappropriation of information. There are various cases of insider trading. The employees, officers and directors of corporate traded the securities of company after learning the confidential report of the company. Friends, family members and business associates of the corporate officials may trade the securities after receiving hidden information. The securities can also be traded by employee of banking, law and brokerage who are provided such information. The government employee can trade the securities by learning such information from their employment (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2001). 2.0 Types of Transactions Considered Insider Trading Regardless of Their Legality The information of the company is not disclosed to the public until the appropriate time. If the employees or officers in the company disclosed the material to the public before company does, then it will affect th e stock price of the company. The material may be positive or negative but is illegal to disclose to the public and it may result to the violation of the policy of company. The transaction must not take place until the next business day after the exposure of material information. The transactions which are prohibited in the company are transaction in company securities and transaction in the securities of other companies. In company securities transaction, an employee is aware of the materials and non-public information about the company. He is required not to be part of certain activities of the company. Company securities’ trading must not be done, i.e. purchasing or selling company securities. He must not advise the public to buy, hold or sell the securities of the company. The employee should not disclose the information of the company and must not guide or help anyone in any of these activities. Transaction is valid in case of emergency for raising money which is not an exemption to the prohibition made on insider trading. In other companies’ transaction in securities, an employee is aware of the non public information of other companies because of their jobs. He is not supposed to trade securities of other companies, which is the violation of other companies’ policies (Heckmann Corporation, n.d.). 3.0 Specific Conditions under Which Insider Trading Is Considered Illegal under United States’ Federal Securities Laws The laws of Federal securities prohibit insiders from benefiting from the information which have not been provided to the public. The laws do not provide permission that the member in public market should have equal information; rather it focuses upon the fact that certain persons might use their position to attain undue informational advantage over others. Under US Federal securities laws, it is unlawful for every person whether ‘directly or indirectly’, by using any methods or ‘instrumentality of interstate commerce’, by means of mails or any facilities of national securities exchange in order to perform various activities. A person should not employ any scheme, mechanism or artifice to defraud. He should not make any false statement of a

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Project managment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Project managment - Assignment Example Supply Chain management Review, one of the industry’s leading prints published an article by David Anderson, Frank Brit and Donavon Favre titled: The seven principles of Supply Chain Management. This came at the time when the depth of SCM as a concept was relatively unexplored and the article therefore opened a door into further studies on how to better the idea and come up with improved models. According to Bowersox, Closs, & Cooper (2007), the 1997 article properly discussed the need to adapt supply chain to the needs of customers. The agreement with this is an indicator of the futuristic nature of the article by Anderson et al, who suggested that customers should be segmented according to their diverse service needs. The suggestion to use sales volume and profitability as the matrices for segmentation has since the production of this literature been adopted by industries and major trade channels. Amazon for example, applied this concept to initiate a program dubbed; Amazon Prime where free 2 day and one day shipping at a discounted rate is provided. In the midst of scepticism, customer numbers at Amazon has continued to rise since the launch of this program as evidence of its success. Chopra & Meindl (2001) in their book- Supply chain management: strategy, planning, and operation discussed the need to customize logistics networks if service to customers if to be optimised. According to them, once customers have been segments and their needs clearly outlined, logistics networks must then be tailored to best serve each segment. This in the end ensures that custom made solutions apply among the many groupings for maximum efficiency and profitability. Wang, Heng & Chau (2007) discussed the need to align demand planning across the entire supply chain so that data on demand is shared on a common platform among associates to ensure all those involved do not keep excess stock. This sharing of demand data ensured that partners know in real time where a specific

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Micro12isa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Micro12isa - Essay Example This shows the boom period in which the minimum wage is increased because of which restaurants owners have to pay more to their waiters as well as it increases the cost of meals and would result in increase in unemployment. The demand and supply curve in the above graph show the impact of the taxes imposed by government on price and quantity demanded. In the above graph the Pe and Qe are the equilibrium price and quantity demanded respectively. Suppose the government imposed tax on any good and the amount of this tax is shared by both producers and the consumers as well. Supply curve shifts from S to S1 because of this tax as the producer desires to sell the good at higher prices in order to decrease the tax’s effect on him and this result in the increase in the price of the good from â€Å"Pe† to â€Å"Pt† as well as decrease in the quantity demanded â€Å"Qe† to â€Å"Qt.† Therefore from the graph we can conclude that if government imposes on any good it would result in decrease in the producer’s revenue, raises prices for consumers, and decreases the quantity of the good available in the market. Now let suppose the government put a tax on this product and also the demand curve is perfectly elastic then the supply curve shifts leftward that is the producer will decrease the supply of product because of which the producer’s surplus decreases and he will have to pay the tax. This we can in the graph given below. Apparently the producers seem to have little costs due to the drug being illegal so the trading does not include any taxation. However the usual cost includes cost of production, transportation, legal actions that may be taken at any step by law enforcing agencies in case of being caught. In case the contrabands are made legal, governments will impose taxation and duties on their trading due to their harmful effects. Such duties will decline the producer surplus and the part of their

Literature Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Literature Review - Essay Example The culture of an organization has also come to be defined as the values that contribute to the creation of an environment that is conducive both psychologically and socially and enable employees to work effectively without worrying about any conflict related to their work procedure (Kilcullen & Judith 1999). Because of its great importance to the organization, it is a fact that it is subject to change and this change has to be well managed by the organization’s administration for it to become effective. Plenty of literature has been written concerning the various aspects of change that take place in an organization’s culture and most of this literature has spanned decades. Changes can be made to the organizational culture through strict management of all the new behaviours that are introduced within the organization. The implementation of change to the culture of an organization is the process through which changes are made in an organization with the intention of achi eving a certain result in the future. In addition, it can be said to be a process which comes to affect the daily activities of an organization, such as how it is managed and how teams and individuals work together in order to achieve the goals which have been set (Arce 2006). While there has been some dispute concerning whether change to the culture of an organization can be changed, it is a fact that change is necessary for the continued thriving of the said organization. This is the reason why, despite the resistance that may be encountered from those individuals within the organizations who have become too comfortable in the current culture, changes have to be implemented. This is the reason why there has to be a procedure which is followed in getting changes in an organization to be introduced and after the introduction, to achieve approval from all those involved (Shook 2010). The implementation of changes to the organizational culture has come to be recognized as one of the m ost important aspects of the running of organizations and as such, plenty of literature concerning it has been written, as the different ways of conducting such changes have been analyzed (Lakos & Phipps 2004). While most of the said literature often adopts a negative attitude concerning the implementation of changes within organizations, it is a fact that most of the organizations that have attempted these changes have witnessed a measure of success. This is because as stated by Sims (2000) change is inevitable within the culture of an organization if it is to remain relevant in the performance of its duties. One of the most important aspects of the organizational culture is that the values embodied within it are based on the knowledge that has been gained in the history of the organization from its founding as well as the existing knowledge of the organization, which forms the philosophies that hold the organization together. It is these philosophies which have to be changed over a certain period of time in order for the management of an organization to be able to achieve a complete change to its culture (Nastase, Giuclea & Bold 2012; Wines & Hamilton 2009). However, there are certain instances

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Learner Autonomy in Language Learning and Teaching Literature review

Learner Autonomy in Language Learning and Teaching - Literature review Example Furthermore, autonomy in language learning and teaching has been studied in alternative contexts, circumstances and practices (Camilleri, 1997). Among the contexts in which autonomy in linguistics has been covered in recent times are self-regulation, teacher/learner development, autonomy and motivation, and the socio-cultural theory of autonomy (Camilleri, 1997). In addition to the ever-expanding role of autonomy in educational policies and their reforms, many works have covered the developments that the philosophy of autonomy has undergone in recent times. Furthermore, this literature review suggests the possible direction for future autonomy-related/focused researches by students, lecturers and applied-linguistics researchers. This literature review will be quite useful to educators and language teachers concerned with learner training, self-accessibility and autonomous learning since it comprehensively accounts for autonomy in language learning and all the other educational practi ces related to the concept of autonomy. Autonomy in Language Learning and Teaching Although a rather common term in contemporary linguistic classes and issues, autonomy is not that clearly understood by many a stakeholder. This situation is more apparent in education activities related to the acquiring of lifelong learning skills (Benson and Voller, 1997). However, many works appreciate the role of autonomy in changing age-old practices and beliefs in linguistic classes, hence the promotion of self-accessibility and participation in language learning institutions (Benson and Voller, 1997). Because of the effects of the past and recently published books and research findings and the recommended practices therein, language learning has claimed its position in the academic field and has consequently placed learners at the centre of education. The historical origins and the background of the term ‘autonomy’ in linguistics is one of its many aspects covered in the works revi ewed in this study. Most works concur that the term ‘learner autonomy’ was coined and first used by Henri Holec, regarded as the father of learner autonomy, in 1981. Though it originated from a single source, the relevant works define the term quite differently. These definitions not only depend on writers but also on their educational levels and contexts within which their books and articles are written. Among the contexts in which the definition of ‘learner autonomy’ has been defined differently are politics, education and human/social spheres (Benson and Voller, 1997). However, it is in the educational context, more so linguistics, that ‘learner autonomy’ has been covered in studies and works to a large extent. In fact, in linguistics-related literature, autonomy is portrayed both as a means and an end to learning and teaching languages. In the literature review, several definitions were common in most books. For instance, Benson and Voller (1997) define ‘learner autonomy’ as one’s capacity to take charge of his/her learning activities and processes. Other authors define ‘autonomy’ as a learner’s or a teacher’s ability to psychologically relate with the contents and processes of learning and teaching respectively (Wenden, 1998). For teachers, autonomy also implies the recognition of a learner’s rights within a learning institut

Monday, September 9, 2019

Supply in Health Care Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Supply in Health Care - Essay Example ic interest is heavily invested in it because human life or health is at stake so that the sector is often seen as insulated from traditional market forces (Feldstein, 2011, p. 513). Issues of morality and ethics, hence, are included as drivers of the supply and demand. In addition, public policy in terms of the organization and regulation of medical services has also been increasing in the United States, which is highlighted by the flagship universal healthcare program of the Obama administration. On the supply side, one can say that economic forces are present and significant. For instance, there is the case of projected physician shortage in the United States. According to Snyderman, Sheldon and Bischoff (2002), this would have serious ramifications, limiting access to healthcare dramatically (p.168). In purely economic terms, once the supply is scarce and demand is high, prices for physician services could inevitably rise. This is demonstrated in the manner by which anesthesiologists could demand high fees. The skill set involved is very important and, hence, hospitals and patients have very little choice but to pay for them. This is highlighted by the fact that in some areas, anesthesiologists have banded together into groups and associations, enabling them to monopolize and dictate standard prices for their services. This is what Getzen (2010) referred to as control over supply in this submarket, wherein professional associations has increased profits for members (p.177) All in all, the price of physician services, as Feldstein stressed, will rise in response to fewer supply of physicians, according to the principle of supply and demand, or vice versa through the impact of competition (p.398). Elasticity for this submarket, hence, could be elastic or inelastic. In a highly competitive condition, it could be elastic whereas in instances wherein no close substitutes are available such as in the case of a monopoly by professional groups or a sheer scarcity of