Thursday, December 5, 2019

HSC Environment Health-Summary

Question: Describe about the HSC for Environment Health-Summary. Answer: The chosen article in this essay is the food crisis across Africa. In southern Malawi, the celebration starts at the time of harvesting. Unfortunately, from last week, they have nothing to celebrate as they had picked their little maize crop. The last year's drought along with erratic rains entered into the Nkhotakota village. But there is no view of even rain ion this year also. The stores of grains in the families are getting empty. If the families over there manage to eat a small portion of meal in a day, then also they will be left out with food for two more months (Robertson Hansen, 2015). The Irish charity Concern has commented that more than ten thousand families are running out of the food. There is no chance of harvesting at least for seven months. They are left out with no money, and they don't have anything to sell. The children are getting admitted to the hospital due to malnutrition. This crisis has appeared due to the El Nino weather event, which hit Latin America, much of India, and parts of Southeast Asia since 1982. But the worst situation with warm water in equatorial Pacific is observed in southern Africa. United Nations is shocked from this situation. More than 7.9m tonnes of food and $650m are needed to save this critical condition. Swaziland, Angola, Madagascar, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, and Malawi have already declared national emergency. The Even situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Botswana is very critical. President Robert Mugabe has requested to buy $ 1.5 bn food for Malawi and Zimbabwe. As more than 8 million people are in food crisis over there (Peakall Shugart, 2013). At present 31 million people are in need of food which is expected to increase to 49 million by Christmas. It is tough to feed these many people as there is no guarantee of money or food supply. 50 markets are getting monitored for this. But the rate of the food is very high. Only nearby Zambia has the better harvest to share. But by the time food will reach to the point, the situation will be worst. The International countries are coming together for help. According to International Development Minister, Britain will take the leadership in this help. The support will not be provided by money, as there is the high chance of corruption. So the support will be provided through food-for-work schemes, medical aid, and food vouchers, etc. (Nieuwenhuijsen, 2015). According to the researchers, it is estimated that the situation will be deteriorated by April 2017. According to WMO, it is also estimated that there is 50:50 chance of hitting by La Nina, the twin of El Nino. It is developing in the Pacific Ocean right after El Nino. Contractually, heavier monsoon can come due to La Nina. Now the people are suffering due to extreme drought condition (Brown, 2013). In future, one point will come when people suffer from the severe flood condition. References: Brown, P. (2013).Toxic exposures: contested illnesses and the environmental health movement. Columbia University Press. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2015).Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, USA. Peakall, D. B., Shugart, L. R. (Eds.). (2013).Biomarkers: research and application in the assessment of environmental health(Vol. 68). Springer Science Business Media. Robertson, L. W., Hansen, L. G. (Eds.). (2015).PCBs: recent advances in environmental toxicology and health effects. University Press of Kentucky.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

A Modernization of Machiavellis The Prince essays

A Modernization of Machiavellis The Prince essays Machiavelli's The Prince has long been used and studied as a manual for those who are already in power or for those who wish to have power. Through rational thinking about political power, Machiavelli is the authoritative source on how one should lead and govern. To illustrate his points, Machiavelli uses many examples of leadership from his life and some from history before 1469. To many readers however these examples are not of relevance anymore because the examples are so dated. To bring the influence back into The Prince, we must put the work into a more modern context. In chapter 16, Machiavelli debates on whether it is better to be liberal or stingy in governing. In a leader both of these traits can be either beneficial or detrimental to leadership. Liberalism, if stopped, can cause those who one governs to believe that they are now stingy. Liberality is most dangerous for those already in power. The French Revolution, some would argue, started because of this scenario. When the French government got into outstanding debt the aristocracy turned to the people to bail them out. When the people were reluctant to this agreement with the noble classes, the middle class pleaded its case for economic reforms to help the government. When their requests were met, the people revolted. People live in the present and do not look to the past very well. Machiavelli concludes that leaders must start out stingy and work their liberality to their advantage. One who is seen as stingy on moment can make one gesture and be thought liberal and gain presti ge from those they govern. In chapter 17 of The Prince, the discussion revolves around whether it is better to be feared or loved as a leader. Although all princes should strive for both, Machiavelli concludes that it is much better to be feared than loved. Many countries today use fear to control their population and rule effectively. Iraq's current dictator, Saddam Hussei ...

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Why Therell Never Be a Perfect Time to Write

Why Therell Never Be a Perfect Time to Write Why There’ll Never Be a Perfect Time to Write Why There’ll Never Be a Perfect Time to Write By Ali Hale One day, you’re going to write that novel that’s been tugging at your sleeve. One day, you’re going to start posting regularly on your blog. One day, you’re going to finish that ebook you started. One day Trust me, I know how you feel. For years, I wanted to be a writer, but I didn’t actually write. I had lots of ideas and dreams, but they never made it out of my head and onto the page. Why? Because I was waiting for the perfect time. I thought that I’d suddenly, magically, find myself inspired. Great chunks of free time would materialise from nowhere, without any effort on my part. Guess what? It never happened. If you’re struggling to find the time (and energy) to sit down and write, then take heart. You’re not alone – in fact, â€Å"finding time to write† is the most common issue that I’m asked about when I’m coaching writers. Here’s why there’ll never be a perfect time: #1: Writing is a High-Resistance Activity I’ve been writing for a living for three years (I’ve completed a novel in that time too), and I still find myself reluctant to get going when I sit down to write. Writing isn’t easy. It takes mental energy – and often emotional energy, too. For most of us, the writing process is also a thinking process: for instance, if you’re putting together a â€Å"Hire Me† page for your blog, you’ll have to get completely clear about what exactly you offer, what you charge, and so on. There are an awful lot of activities that feel much easier than writing. Doing the housework. â€Å"Networking† on Twitter. Making a coffee. Sure, you’ll have the occasional day when you’re filled with inspiration and you can’t wait to get to the keyboard. But those days are pretty rare. #2: Writing Requires Concentration and Privacy Finding the perfect time to write isn’t the only issue at hand. You might also need to find a good place. It’s very tough to write if you’re sitting on a sofa with your laptop while the television’s on and housemates or family members are chatting. I personally find it almost impossible to write at all if anyone can see my screen (even if they’re not deliberately watching) – and I know that a lot of writers feel the same way. To feel secure enough to write, you need a certain amount of privacy. The perfect place isn’t going to appear from nowhere. You might hold out hopes for a magical day when your family do the chores, clear off to the park and leave you in peace to write but is that really going to happen? #3: Writing Is Important but (Usually) Not Urgent Your writing is important – even if no-one else seems to think so. If you get that novel finished, it could be the first step on a lucrative new career. If you write regularly on your blog, you’ll establish a strong online platform. And if you finish that ebook, you’ll have something to sell to your blog’s readers. Beyond that, your writing is important because it’s part of who you are. I’d hazard a guess that you’re happy when you manage to write – and dissatisfied when weeks or months go by without any writing. The problem is, â€Å"write novel† probably isn’t the most urgent thing on your to-do list. Less significant but more time-pressing tasks – like doing the chores, or fulfilling commitments that you’ve taken on – are pushing writing down and down the list. So What Can You Do? Stop waiting for the perfect time. Instead, make a commitment to find two hours during the next week when you can write. There are 168 hours in a week – you can take two of those to do something that really matters to you. Perhaps they won’t be the perfect time – but they’ll be far better than nothing. Good luck with your writing! Ali Hale is a writing coach and founder of our Freelance Writing Course. If you’d like some help finding time to write, she has a free mini-ebook How to Find Time For Your Writing, available when you join her newsletter list. (You’ll also get weekly writing tips and encouragement and occasional extra free ebooks – all straight to your inbox, all completely free.) You can find out more about the newsletter, and sign up, here. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Types of LanguageWork of Art Titles8 Great Podcasts for Writers and Book Authors

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Persuasion techniques used in Jesus Camp film Essay

Persuasion techniques used in Jesus Camp film - Essay Example The persuasive techniques used in the film George W. Bush seems to be the icon for the children in this movie. A life size cardboard cutout is displayed in front of them, a waving American flag graphic projected behind it reads, â€Å"Here’s President Bush, come to visit us†¦!†Ã¢â‚¬  The children come forward and pay respect to him, touch the cutout and one could see the charged emotions on their innocent countenances. After providing such a backdrop, the children are asked to pray and profound vocabulary of Christianity pours out, like flesh and blood, principalities and powers, rulers of the darkness in this world, spiritual wickedness etc. Do the children really understand what they are being taught? Not one of them perhaps, but their minds is being polluted and they develop deep grudge against something which they do not know precisely. They begin to hate that which ‘not Christian’ according to the new values taught to them in Jesus Camp. In a sce ne, children dance to the accompaniment of Christian Heavy Metal music, in strangely painted faces brandishing sticks and thrusting them to an imaginary enemy and shouting â€Å"War! Warfare!† The girl participants in the dance wear black. The Jesus Camp is against abortion. Good, but it is taught, as if through a system drawn through the prison manual. The mouths of the children are shut with a red duct tape with the inscription LIFE. Those running this movement of Christianity are not apologetic about their intensions and speak with deep convictions. They are on the mission to form a generation of "Conservative Christian Republicans." Another ‘highlight’ of the camp is all children, irrespective of their age, are taught the same Christian principles. A toddler and a teen are given the message, whether it suits their mind set or not, without applying any thought about the dangerous consequences as to what imprint it may leave on the tender minds. The words Satan and Sprit are often used and the children are made to believe that a horrifying evil monster continues to stand at their back to watch their actions. Any deviations in following the issues that are taught in the class, any lethargy, would destroy them! What could be the finished product, of the children who entered the camp as innocents, their mind fresh as the flower in bloom? Trauma is their bonus! How can their mind process such hard messages? The trans-inducing methods must have done irreparable damage to their life, which is difficult to erase. Most of the children look physically tired and emotionally exhausted, their eyes drained due to excessive tears they shed, and at the subconscious level, poisonous seeds are planted through the vicious lessons of Jesus Camp that will grow into saplings and will ultimately yield poisonous fruits. The mind-set of one such ‘finished product’ of this move, Levi, by name indicates the line of thinking of the future generation th e movie will sure to produce. At one stage of the movie, he clearly expresses his hatred for the non-Christians in equivocal terms. He is led to believe that everything about non-Christians is bad. This camp has shut the doors for the real Jesus. His teachings are abandoned in this class and some political figures are chiseled out of the personalities of the youngsters. They are taught about the dangers to Christianity and America, which in reality are not there! This indeed is the manufacturing unit of human bombs that will leave far-reaching consequences to destroy the society. 2. My opinion of the appropriateness of the techniques Religion is good; â€Å"religionism† is bad. Fundamentalism in the practice of any religion is the worst thing that can happen to humankind. It is a double tragedy—for the individual personality and for the culture of the Nation as a whole. As for Christianity, when the religious leaders give more importance to the cross on the neck than C hrist in the heart, the fertile field of true religion begins to rot. Jesus Camp (Heidi

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Data Collection Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Data Collection Proposal - Essay Example (2006). The difference between primary and secondary sources of data is crucial in social research. Primary sources are data which are unpublished; that is, the researcher has gathered them directly from the target individuals or organization. Primary data include data from fieldwork, interviews, and unpublished documents like minutes of meetings. On the other hand, secondary data are any data which a researcher has gathered that have been published before. Secondary data include previously published books, journal articles, and newspaper articles. Mixed method that includes qualitative and quantitative data will be used in this research. Qualitative data will used determine if Bariatric surgery put patient at long term risk and complications of weight. Quantitative data will be used in determining the number of patients who responded differently when put under Bariatric surgery. Primary data will be collected from healthcare providers with information on new devices, drugs, delivery systems, and software for managing patients who have undergone Bariatric surgery. All the legal and ethical issues were taken into consideration as stipulated by law. 50 patients who had undergone Bariatric surgery will be randomly sampled from the information provided by the healthcare providers. This will provide a sufficiently large but feasible number to use in the analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis will be used to analyze the data. This will help in explaining how the data look, (by giving the minimum and maximum values), the what the centre point of the data is (by giving the mean), and how spread out the data may be related to one of more aspects (by giving the standard

Monday, November 18, 2019

International Business To Business Marketing Essay

International Business To Business Marketing - Essay Example This may be summarised by the observation that the behaviour of a complex system cannot be understood completely by the segregated analysis of its constituent parts. However, Beverland (2002) suggested the use of this idea in regard to supply chains is neither consistent nor straightforward. New also argued that the supply chain metaphor is used in many ways, but three meanings dominate discussion: "supply chain" from the perspective of an individual firm; "supply chain" related to a particular product or item (such as the supply chain for beef, or cocaine, or oil); and "supply chain" used as a handy synonym for purchasing, distribution, and materials management (Larson, 1998). Supply chain management can mean any one of these things, but one aspect is certain: Purchasing and/or outsourcing activity is being undertaken (Barkema, 1997). Beverland (2002) suggested that supply chain management is an integrative philosophy used to manage the total flow through a distribution channel from the supplier to the ultimate user. Another definition is the management of a chain or of operations and centres through which supplies move from the source of supply to the final customer or point of use (Chng, 2000). In essence, the supply chain starts with the extraction of raw material (or origination of raw concepts for services), and each link in the chain processes the material or the concept in some way or supports this processing. The supply chain thus extends from the raw material extraction or raw concept origination through many processes to the ultimate sale of the final product, whether goods or services, to the consumer. Internet and Supply Chain Management Many organizations, often too late, are now realizing that they should have paid as much attention to their internal business processes, their orderfulfilment resources and systems, and the integration of those processes and systems with those of their suppliers of goods and order-fulfilment services, as they did to their customer-facing Web site. The need is for a seamless end-toend 'order to cash' process incorporating the Web site, the business' accounting systems and the delivery mechanism. The accounting needs should embrace, as a minimum, accounts payable, accounts receivable, inventory, purchase orders, invoicing and credit control. (Johnson, 2002) The delivery mechanisms in many organizations cannot cope, when Internet trading is added to the traditional market offering, with the requirement for a large number of small orders requiring, to all intents and purposes, instant shipping. They may have historically been shipping relatively large orders to a few intermediate supply chain points on a two to three day lead time basis. (Chopra, 2003)The

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Fall Of The Flying Bank Management Essay

The Fall Of The Flying Bank Management Essay Schweizerische Luftverkehrs AG, also known as Swissair or SAir Group was founded on March 26, 1931 in Switzerland. Since the very beginning of its era, Swissair has been very successful in managing and implementing its strategies, and also winning the best airline award for decades. The company had a period of growth (Appendix 1) and grew rapidly till the mid 90s, after which there was an executive board members restructuring which caused a major turn of events in the companys history. Switzerland being an expensive destination for a business venture with rising costs and a population of only 7 million people, Swissair was aware of its limited growth potential in the domestic home market. Therefore during the period of mid 90s, Swissair adopted an equity based alliance strategy, also referred as the hunter strategy. The main aim of Swissair was to create an alliance with Europes other non-dominant airline firms and become efficient enough to compete with other stronger alliances. Thi s alliance was called Qualiflier. To make the alliance successful, Swissair bought small stakes in Air Littoral, Air Europe, Volare Group, LTU, AOM Minerve, LOT, South African Airways, TAP and Air Liberte, operating in Austria, Hungary, Finland, Ireland, Africa and many more. The biggest and worst investment decision made by Swissair in that period was buying equity in a Belgium carrier called Sabena. Sabena had posted a profit only twice in the entire companys history. These were bad investment decisions as all the firms except LOT and South African airlines posted a loss in the year of their acquisition, nor were they dominant players in their home markets. In this report, these failed strategic alliances are analyzed using Lasserres (2007) framework and theoretical models. Recommendations are made based on these findings, to illustrate how Swiss Air could have avoided bankruptcy. Contents Introduction The concept of two or more companies collaborating for mutual benefits through the formation of a strategic alliance has become more lucrative over the years and several airline companies have adopted this expansion strategy to gain a competitive advantage in a highly saturated market (Evans, 2001). Swiss Air was one of the companies that fell prey to the perils of risk laden strategic alliances. In the mid 1990s the European Aviation market was deregulated and various airlines began entering into strategic alliances so that they could facilitate growth by sharing their resources (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). Around the same time, a majority of the Swiss population voted against Switzerlands accession to the EEA (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). This hindered the companies objective to expand and grow in the European market, and led to the formation of an equity based alliance strategy, also dubbed as the Hunter Strategy (Suen, 2002). Swiss Air had always been a company that was averse to risky st rategic choices, however in the course of diversifying their risk, the company made some questionable strategic decisions that increased their risk and made them more vulnerable to their investments financial performance (Suen, 2002). In this report Swiss Airs failed strategic alliances are analyzed and the key factors for the cause of failure are identified. These factors are highlighted by financial and performance data that helps us understand the major cause of Swiss Airs downfall. Various management issues coupled with bad investment decisions led to the failure of companies strategic alliances, however there were a few external factors that catalyzed the collapse of the Flying Bank (Evans, 2001). Based on the faults and errors committed by Swiss Air, few recommendations are listed in the report to underline what kind of strategic approach could have aided the company to successfully form a Global Reach Alliance (Lasserre, 2007). Problem Identification During the period of deregulation of the airline industry in Europe, major airlines were looking to form strategic alliances with various airlines in order to share their resources and capabilities, in the process gaining a competitive edge in the market. Swiss Air was one of the airlines that boasted the healthiest bank balance and was renowned for its safety and reliability (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). On December 1992 Swiss Air received an unexpected blow as 50.3 percent of the Swiss population voted against the inclusion of Switzerland in the European Economic Union (Chang and Williams, 2002). Due to the comparatively small population of Switzerland and low scope for growth, Swiss Air shifted its focus to Europe, with a strategic aim of holding 20 percent market share (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). This objective was to be achieved by using the Hunter Strategy, an equity based strategy developed by McKinsey (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). This would allow Swiss Air to purchase equity stakes in sm aller and less known carriers and create an independent alliance with these companies. This would help the company compete with some of the larger alliances dominant in the European market. The three generic strategies for airlines are growth, focus and low cost strategy (Kleymann and Seristo, 2004). According to strategic context and value potential this new growth strategy was not incorrect, however the implementation of the strategy was flawed (Suen, 2002). Using Philippe Lasserres (2007) framework for analysis we can identify the stage at which Swiss Air faced a roadblock and had to declare bankruptcy. After the failure of its early alliances, European Quality, Global Excellence and Atlantic Excellence, Swiss Air learnt from its mistakes and decided that deeper integration along with ownerships and control would provide them with natural exit barriers (Suen, 2002). The Hunter Strategy led to the creation of Qualiflyer, a European based alliance consisting of carriers like Austrian, Sabena, AOM France, Crossair, Lauda Air, TAP Portugal, and THY Turkish Airlines (Appendix 3) (Suen, 2002). Qualiflyer would provide Swiss Air the global reach and transnational flexibility that a global carrier required to remain competitive in the market (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989). The competitive forces and prevalent factors in the industry pressurized Swiss Air to form a group alliance with these carriers. Swiss Airs major flaw in the implementation of this strategy was their failure to assess the strategic value of these equity-based alliances (Lasserre, 2007). The failure to create and capture value through an alliance is illustrated in Swiss Airs purchase of 49.5 percent equity stake in the Belgian airline Sabena, which was later increased to 85 percent. This equity-based investment was done knowing that they were breaching European laws that stated that a non-EU-based investor couldnt acquire more than 49.5 per cent share in a EU-based airline. Not only did they breach the law, they also agreed to compensate the Belgian Government for any damages they incur (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). This equity-based alliance was the worst as Sabena had always been a loss-incurring airline and it proved to be a major liability to Swiss Air. Qualiflyer operated on a hub-and-spoke system, which meant that there were no bilateral agreements in the alliance and all members were required to contract any of their services to a Swiss Air, owned subsidiary. This in turn greatly increased the cost of an exit strategy as Swiss Air needed to inject large sums of capital into its financially weak partners in order to ensure Qualiflyer could create value (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). Apart from the implementation of the Hunter Strategy, there were a few fundamental flaws that led to the termination of Qualiflyer. This alliance damaged the companys brand image by primarily choosing second and third-rate carriers as partners. These carriers had previously been avoided by the other large alliances due to their inability to turn a profit (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). The September 2001 attack in USA was the nail in the coffin for Swiss Air as it marked a period of hardship for all airlines, leading to great losses in revenue. Swiss Airs unsuccessful alliance strategy was the main cause for the companys downfall, however there were certain external factors that made survival for the company extremely difficult (Suen, 2002). The Swiss vote against joining the EEA was the factor that led to the formulation of the hunter strategy. Strategic Recommendations Swiss Airs catastrophic downfall tarnished the image of their brand, led to the loss of thousands of jobs; stranded hundreds of people at airport and most importantly hurt the pride of the Swiss People (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). A string of bad business decisions coupled with external factors in the airline industry caused Swiss Air to lose their cash flow. In order to determine how such a crisis could have been avoided, Lasserres (2007) framework for analysis of strategic alliances will be applied. After identifying the companys strategic and operational issues, it can be determined that they went wrong on most stages of the framework. The Hunters Strategy would have succeeded in the strategic context if they had assessed the value potential of this alliance (Hayes, 1996). The Qualiflyer Alliance was fundamentally a coalition alliance, where Swiss Air would get a more global reach in the industry by combining the members resources and capabilities. Swiss Air strived to create a certain standard of service for its passengers that would inculcate their values of punctuality, safety and luxury (Lasserre, 2007). However this was not possible, as they had chosen second and third-grade carriers, which in turn affected their own brand image. They should have carefully chosen their partners, using certain tools to ensure success. This is discussed in detail later in the report. Subsequently, they failed to challenge any of the larger alliances in Europe at that point in time. This takes us to the second factor in the framework, which deals with partners fit (Lasserre, 2007). This stage in the framework evaluates the viability of the strategic alliance. As stated earlier in the report, Sabena was a loss-making airline in the start and by choosing to purchase 49 .5 percent equity in the company Swiss Air made one of their worst financial investments. Year after year, Sabena kept incurring a loss, which drained a lot of capital from Swiss Air (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). It can be determined that Sabena was not a good strategic fit for Swiss Air and proves that they should have conducted an effective partner analysis (Lasserre, 2007). Swiss Air chose to enter into equity-based alliances with several carriers so they had a certain degree of control (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). In order to distribute and diversify their risk, they ventured into several other fields such as hotels, catering and aircraft maintenance (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). All in all they had around 252 subsidiaries (Appendix 2) under their companys name (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). The various subsidiaries and financially weak partners drained a lot of their capital reserves, which eventually led to a strain on their cash flow. A much leaner organizational structure would have assisted the effective management of resources and capital. The final factor in Lasseres (2007) framework deals with the implementation of the strategy. This is where the company faltered the most and part of the blame can be put on their current board members managerial decisions at that time (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). A lot of their bad investment decisions could have been avoided if the board consisted of members who were well versed with the intricate workings of the airline industry (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). Their Hunter Strategy was devised with the consultancy services provided by McKinsey Co, a US based company, which did not have the adequate knowledge of the European Airline industry (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). There was a restructuring of the board and all members who recognized the threats to Swiss Air were removed (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). The shortcomings and mistakes made by the board can be analyzed by the Resource Dependence theory, which illustrates how the external resources in the industry affected their decisions (Casciaro and Piskorski, 2005). The Resource Dependence theory and Group Conformity theory explain how the board pulled out of a potential alliance with a large European carrier due to their hesitance over the degree of control they would have (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). This illustrates the inexperience and lack of knowledge within the newly structured board, especially how the members allowed the Hunter Strategy to be implemented because they did not want any di sruptive behavior within the board (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). Swiss Air should have strictly followed the critical success factors for a successful strategic alliance so that they could focus on all aspects of the alliance instead of focusing on their scope of control (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). The best solution to prevent such problems from recurring would be to alter the laws and regulations within the EFTA to ensure no other company follows in the footsteps on Swiss Air. Legislative changes to corporate governance requirements should be made to ensure that the members of the board of an airline are experienced and have adequate knowledge of the dynamics of the industry (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). Risk management is an important ability that is required in a company that has huge global exposure such as Swiss air, the ability to foresee and evaluate contingencies are required when it comes to alliances that were formed by Swiss Air. Swiss air could have given higher emphasis to risk management and contingency planning in order to be more efficient and competitive in the market (Lasserre, 2007). As stated above, major reasons of the bankruptcy were external factors, relating to macro-economic issues and an economic slowdown, Successful Contingency planning and evaluation of the economic risks could have averted these issues related to the economic deregulation (Lasserre, 2007). Conclusion Through the years the aviation industry has proven to be volatile and drastically changing, the aviation companies globally have had to adapt to the changes to help them fortify or maintain their position in a market. In the early 1990s the formation of the EEA was a pivotal factor for the liberalization of the laws in several countries within the European region, this proved to be an asset for countries within the region but Switzerland opted not to join the EEA (Knorr and Arndt, 2004). This decision negatively affected its national airline Swiss Air, who then attempted to maintain its position in the market by forming equity based strategic alliances. The company formed these alliances on the basis of the Hunter Strategy, the strategy theoretically poised to give optimistic results but the implementation is always crucial for the success, this is where Swiss Air faltered. The reason for the poor implementation would be largely due to inefficiency of the management team of the compa ny, the management chose scope of control as a priority which led to the negligence of prioritizing the other factors that lead to a successful strategic alliance (Hermann and Rammal, 2010). The company made grave errors and faced the consequences accordingly; to ensure that success is achieved for the company it must include people with experience and knowledge within the management. The company should also consider the possibility of circumstances where contingency planning would be required as there could be many unforeseen risks in the aviation industry. A strategy is only effective if implemented correctly, Swiss Air made crucial mistakes in their decision making process, there was lack of contingency planning and several wrong investments. All these factors contributed largely to the downfall of the once reputed and respected Flying Bank.